Return on equity²
Earnings after tax divided by equity. The components are calculated as the average of the last 12 months.
Return on working capital (P/WC)¹
EBITA divided by working capital.
Return on capital employed
Profit before tax plus financial expenses as a percentage of capital employed. The components are calculated as the average of the last 12 months.
EBITA¹
Operating profit before amortisation of intangible assets.
EBITA-margin
EBITA as a percentage of net sales.
EBITDA¹
Operating profit before depreciation and amortisation.
Equity per share
Equity divided by number of shares outstanding at the reporting period's end.
Financial net debt
The net of interest-bearing debt and provisions minus cash and cash equivalents.
Net debt/EBITDA
Financial net liabilities divided by EBITDA.
Cash flow from operating activities per share
Cash flow from operating activities, divided by the average number of outstanding shares after repurchase.
Net debt excluding pensions/Equity ratio²
Net debt excluding pensions divided by shareholders' equity.
Employee turnover
Number of employees who left during the year, in relation to the average number of employees.
Interest coverage ratio
Profit after net financial items plus financial expenses divided by financial expenses.
Working capital (WC)¹
Working capital is measured through an annual average defined as inventories plus accounts receivable less accounts payable.
Operating margin
Operating profit as a percentage of net sales.
Equity ratio²
Equity as a percentage of total assets.
Debt/equity ratio²
Financial net liabilities divided by equity.
Capital employed
Total assets minus non-interest-bearing liabilities and provisions.
Outstanding shares
Total number of shares less treasury shares repurchased by the Company.
Earnings per share (EPS)
Shareholders' proportion of profit for the year in relation to the average number of shares outstanding.
Earnings per share (EPS), diluted
Shareholders' proportion of profit for the year in relation to the average number of shares outstanding, adjusted for additional shares from the exercise of outstanding personnel options or similar programmes.

¹The performance measure is an alternative performance measure according to ESMA’s guidelines.
²Minority interest is included in equity when the performance measures are calculated.