Goals and policy for risk management

Addtech strives for structured and efficient management of the financial risks that arise in operations, which is manifest in the financial policy adopted by the Board of Directors. The financial operations are not conducted as a separate line of the business; they are merely intended to constitute support for the business and reduce risks in the financial operations. The policy stipulates goals and risks in the financial operations, and how they are to be managed. The financial policy expresses the goal of minimising and controlling financial risks. The policy defines and identifies the financial risks that arise at Addtech and how responsibility for managing these risks is distributed in the organisation. The financial risks defined in the financial policy are transaction exposure, translation exposure, refinancing risk, interest rate risk, margin risk, liquidity risk and issuer/borrower risk. Operational risks, that is, financial risks related to operating activities, are managed by each subsidiary's management according to principles in the financial policy and subordinate process descriptions approved by the Group's Board of Directors and management. Risks such as translation exposure, refinancing risk and interest rate risk are managed by the Parent Company, Addtech AB. Financial derivatives with external counterparties may only be entered by Addtech AB. The subsidiaries hedge their risk via Addtech AB which, in turn, obtains hedges on the external market.

Currency risk

The Addtech Group conducts extensive trade abroad and a material currency exposure therefore arises in the Group, which must be managed in such a way as to minimise the impact on earnings ensuing from exchange rate fluctuations. The Group applies decentralised responsibility for currency risk management. This involves risk identification and risk hedging occurring at subsidiary level. It is important to capitalise on the size of the Group and natural conditions to match flows, and the subsidiaries must therefore hedge their risk via the Parent Company which, in turn, obtains hedges on the external market. For Addtech, currency risk arises 1) as a result of future payment flows in foreign currency, known as transaction exposure, and 2) because parts of the Group's equity comprise net assets in foreign subsidiaries, known as translation exposure. Monetary financial assets and liabilities in currencies other than each Group company’s functional currency occur to a limited extent.

Transaction exposure

Transaction exposure comprises all future contracted and forecast ingoing and outgoing payments in foreign currency. The Group's currency flows usually pertain to flows in foreign currency from purchases, sales and dividends. Transaction exposure also comprises financial transactions and balances. During the year, the Group's payment flows in foreign currencies were distributed as follows:

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  Currency flows, gross 2017/2018 Currency flows, net
  Inflows Outflows 2017/2018 2016/2017
EUR 1,750 2,150 -400 -577
USD 691 779 -88 -50
NOK 56 35 21 25
JPY 60 86 -26 -26
DKK 41 110 -69 -62
GBP 14 72 -58 -42
CHF 20 74 -54 -50

The effects of exchange rate fluctuations are reduced by buying and selling in the same currency, through currency clauses in customer contracts and, to a certain degree, by forward purchases or sales of foreign currency. Currency clauses are a common method in the industry for handling uncertainty associated with future cash flows. A currency clause means that compensation will be paid for any changes in the exchange rate that exceed a certain predefined level during the contract period. If these thresholds are not reached, for example when the exchange rate changes by less than two percentage points, no compensation is paid. The currency clauses adjust the exchange rate change between the time the order is placed and the invoice date. Currency clauses are symmetrically designed, which means that compensation is charged or credited when the exchange rate rises or declines beyond the predefined thresholds.

Of Group net sales, currency clauses cover about 14 percent (13) and sales in the purchasing currency make up about 36 percent (33). In certain transactions, there is a direct link between the customer's order and the associated purchase order, which is a good basis for effective currency risk management. However, in many cases the dates of the orders do not coincide, which may reduce the effectiveness of these measures. The subsidiaries have reduced their currency exposure by using forward foreign exchange contracts. At the end of the financial year, there were outstanding forward foreign exchange contracts in a gross amount of SEK 165 million (155), of which EUR equalled SEK 97 million (102), JPY SEK 14 million (16), USD SEK 38 million (15), CHF SEK 1 million (1), PLN SEK 7 million (15) and DKK SEK 8 million (8). Out of the total contracts, SEK 119 million (110) matures within six months, SEK 45 million (45) within 12 months and SEK 1 million (0) within 18 months. Hedge accounting does not apply to forward foreign exchange contracts and they are classified as a financial asset measured at fair value held for trading. Hedge accounting applies to embedded derivatives consisting of currency clauses, and they are classified as derivatives used in hedge accounting. The cash flow effect from embedded derivatives normally occurs within six months.

The Group has a net exposure in several currencies. If each separate currency pair changes by 5 percent, the aggregate effect on profit would total about SEK 38 million (36), all else being equal. Inflows and outflows in the same currency mean that the Group's exposure is relatively limited. Currency flows in the Parent Company are mainly in Swedish kronor (SEK). To the extent that internal and external loans and investments in the Parent Company are in foreign currency, 100 percent of the capital amount is hedged.

Translation exposure

The translation exposure of the Addtech Group is currently not hedged. The Group's net assets are divided among foreign currencies as follows:

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  31 Mar 18 31 Mar 17
Net investments SEKm Sensitivity analysis 1) SEKm Sensitivity analysis 2)
NOK 748.0 37.4 736.0 36.8
EUR 614.0 30.7 450.0 22.5
DKK 687.0 34.4 358.0 17.9
PLZ 6.0 0.3 52.0 2.6
TTD 22.0 1.1 28.0 1.4
GBP 337.0 16.8 155.0 7.8
HKD 35.0 1.7 14.0 0.7
 1) Impact of +/–5% in exchange rate on Group equity
 2) Circumstances in the previous year

When translating the income statement of units with a functional currency other than SEK, a translation effect arises when exchange rates vary. With the present distribution of Group companies' different functional currencies, a change of 1 percentage point in the exchange rates would have an effect of SEK +/- 48 million (41) on net sales and SEK +/- 3 million (3) on operating profit. 

The exchange rates used in the financial statements are shown in the following table:

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Average rate Closing day rate
Exchange rate 2017/2018 2016/2017 2018-03-31 2017-03-31
CHF 1 8.59 8.78 8.73 8.91
CNY 100 125.85 128.88 132.76 129.44
DKK 100 131.05 127.88 137.99 128.16
EUR 1 9.75 9.51 10.28 9.53
GBP 1 11.05 11.32 11.75 11.14
HKD 1 1.07 1.12 1.06 1.15
JPY 1000 75.20 80.20 78.40 79.70
NOK 100 102.77 103.93 106.28 103.97
PLZ 1 2.31 2.19 2.44 2.26
TRY 1 2.27 2.72 2.10 2.45
TTD 1 1.22 1.32 1.23 1.34
TWD 1 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.30
USD 1 8.34 8.68 8.35 8.92

Financing and liquidity

The overall objective of Addtech's financing and debt management is to secure financing for the operations in both the long and short term, and to minimise borrowing costs. The capital requirement is to be secured through an active and professional borrowing procedure comprising overdraft and other credit facilities. Raising of external financing is centralised at Addtech AB. Adequate payment capacity is to be achieved through contractual credit facilities. Surplus liquidity is primarily used to pay down outstanding credits. The Parent Company is responsible for the Group's long-term financing as well as its supply of liquidity. The Parent Company provides an internal bank which lends to and borrows from the subsidiaries. The Group's and Parent Company's non-current and current interest-bearing liabilities are shown in Notes 24 and 25.

To manage surpluses and deficits in different currencies, Addtech uses currency swaps from time to time. This allows the Group to reduce its financing costs and the Company's liquid funds to be used in an efficient manner.

Refinancing risk

The refinancing risk is the risk of Addtech not having access to sufficient financing on each occasion. The refinancing risk increases if Addtech's credit rating deteriorates or if Addtech becomes too dependent on one source of financing. If all or a large part of the debt portfolio matures on a single or a few occasions, this could involve the turnover or refinancing of a large proportion of the loan volume having to occur on disadvantageous interest and borrowing terms.

In order to limit the refinancing risk, the procurement of long-term credit facilities is commenced no later than nine months before the credit facility matures. On 31 March 2018, the Group’s credit facilities amounted to SEK 1,501 million (1,502), represented by bank overdraft facilities of SEK 1,101 million (1,102) and other agreed credit facilities of SEK 400 million (400). During the year credit facilities decreased by SEK 1 million (100) while overdraft facilities have stayed unchanged (SEK 100 million). At 31 March 2017, the Group had utilised SEK 821 million (361) of the bank overdraft facilities and SEK 300 million (0) of the other credit facilities. Unutilised bank overdraft facilities and credit facilities amounted to SEK 379 million (641). The Group’s credit facilities are contingent upon loan covenants, the conditions of which are fulfilled with a wide margin. For covenants, Addtech uses two ratios: EBITDA/net financial items and equity/assets.

Interest rate risk

The interest rate risk is regulated by ensuring that the average fixed interest term of the debt portfolio varies between 0-3 years. The debt portfolio consists of bank overdraft facilities and outstanding external loans. The interest rate at 31 March 2018 was variable, that is, 0-3 months. Addtech's main exposure to interest rate risk is in its debt portfolio. Aside from the pension liability, interest-bearing external debt totals SEK 1369 million (979).
With the current net financial debt, the impact on the Group's net financial items is SEK +/- 9 million if interest rates change by 1 percentage point.

Issuer/borrower risk and credit risk

Issuer/borrower risk and credit risk are defined as the risk of Addtech's counterparties failing to fulfil their contractual obligations. Addtech is exposed to credit risk in its financial transactions, that is, in investing its surplus liquidity and executing forward foreign exchange transactions, and in its commercial operations in connection with accounts receivable and advance payments to suppliers. Maximum credit risk exposure from financial assets is consistent with the carrying amount of those assets.

Addtech's financial function at the Parent Company is responsible for assessing and managing issuer/borrower risk. The financial policy prescribes that surplus liquidity only be invested with counterparties that have a very high credit rating. As in prior years, in 2017/2018 surplus funds were not invested with any counterparties other than Swedish banks, aside from the Group's normal bank contacts.

To utilise its subsidiaries' detailed knowledge of Addtech's customers and suppliers, Addtech has each company assess the credit risk in its commercial transactions. New customers are assessed before credit is granted, and credit limits set are strictly enforced. Short credit periods are the goal, and avoiding excessive concentration of business with individual customers and with specific sectors helps minimise risks. No individual customer accounts for more than 4 percent (2) of total credit exposure during a one-year period. The equivalent figure for the ten largest customers is about 13 percent (13). Exposure per customer segment and geographic market is presented in Note 5. Bad debt losses totalled SEK 6 million (1) during the year, equal to 0 percent (0) of net sales.

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Accounts receivable, SEKm     2018-03-31 2017-03-31
Carrying amount     1,360 1,170
Impairment losses     -10 -9
Cost     1,350 1,161
Change in impaired accounts receivable     2017/2018 2016/2017
Amount at start of year     -9 -5
Corporate acquisitions     0 -1
Year’s impairment losses/reversals     -1 -4
Settled impairment losses     1 1
Translation effects     -1 0
Total     -10 -9
Time analysis of accounts receivable that are overdue but not impaired 2018-03-31 2017-03-31
< = 30 days     145 96
31–60 days     29 16
> 60 days     27 23
Total     201 135