Return on equity²
Earnings after tax divided by equity. The components are calculated as the average of the last 12 months.

Return on equity measures the return generated on owners’ invested capital.
Return on working capital (P/WC)¹
EBITA divided by working capital.

P/WC is used to analyse profitability and is a measure that encourages high EBITA and low working capital requirements.
Return on capital employed¹
Profit before tax plus financial expenses as a percentage of capital employed. The components are calculated as the average of the last 12 months.

Return on capital employed shows the Group’s profitability in relation to externally financed capital and equity, see the reconciliation table on page 27-28.
EBITA¹
Operating profit before amortisation of intangible assets.

EBITA is used to analyse the profitability generated by operating activities, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
EBITA-margin¹
EBITA as a percentage of net sales.

EBITA margin is used to the show the degree of profitability in operating activities.
EBITDA¹
Operating profit before depreciation and amortisation.

EBITDA is used to analyse the profitability generated by operating activities, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Equity per share¹
Equity divided by number of shares outstanding at the reporting period's end.

This measures how much equity is attributable to each share and is published to make it easier for investors to conduct analyses and make decisions.
Financial net debt¹
The net of interest-bearing debt and provisions minus cash and cash equivalents.

Net debt is used to monitor changes in debt, analyse the Group indebtedness and its ability to repay its debts using liquid funds generated from the Group’s operating activities if all debt fell due for repayment today and any necessary refinancing.
Financial net debt/EBITDA¹
Net financial debt divided by EBTIDA.

Net financial debt compared with EBITDA provides a performance measure for net debt in relation to cash-generating earnings in the business, i.e. it gives an indication of the business’ ability to repay its debts. This measure is generally used by financial institutions to measure creditworthiness.
Financial items¹
Finance income minus finance costs.

Used to describe changes in the Group’s financial activities.
Acquired growth¹
Changes in net sales attributable to business acquisitions compared with the same period last year.

Acquired growth is used as a component to describe the change in consolidated net sales in which acquired growth is distinguished from organic growth, divestments and exchange rate effects, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Cash flow from operating activities per share¹
Cash flow from operating activities, divided by the average number of outstanding shares after repurchase.

This measure is used so investors can easily analyse the size of the surplus generated per share from operating activities.
Net investments in non-current assets¹
Investments in non-current assets minus sales of non-current assets.

This measure is used to analyse the Group’s investments in renewing and developing property, plant and equipment.
Net debt excluding pensions¹
The net of interest-bearing debt and provisions excluding pensions minus cash and cash equivalents.

A measure used to analyse financial risk, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Net debt excluding pensions/ equity ratio¹ ²
Net debt excluding pensions divided by shareholders' equity.

A measure used to analyse financial risk, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Organic growth¹
Changes in net sales excluding currency effects, acquisitions and divestments compared with the same period last year.

Organic growth is used to analyse underlying sales growth driven a change in volumes, product range and price for similar products between different periods, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Profit after financial items¹
Profit/loss for the period before tax.

Used to analyse the business’ profitability including financial activities.
Earnings per share (EPS)
Shareholders’ share of profit for the period after tax, divided by the weighted average number of shares during the period. Performance measures under IFRS.
Earnings per share (EPS), diluted
Shareholders’ share of profit for the period after tax, divided by the weighted average number of shares during the period, adjusted for the additional number of shares in the event of outstanding options being used.
Interest coverage ratio¹
Earnings after net financial items plus interest expense and bank charges divided by interest expense and bank charges.

This performance indicator measures the Group’s capacity through its business operations and finance income to generate a sufficiently large surplus to cover its finance costs, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Working capital¹
Working capital (WC) is measured through an annual average defined as inventories plus accounts receivable less accounts payable.

Working capital is used to analyse how much working capital is tied up in the business, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Operating margin¹
Operating profit as a percentage of net sales.

This measure is used to specify the percentage of sales that is left to cover interest and tax, and to provide a profit, after the company’s costs have been paid.
Operating profit¹
Operating income minus operating expenses.

Used to describe the Group’s earnings before interest and tax.
Debt/equity ratio¹ ²
Financial net liabilities divided by equity.

A measure used to analyse financial risk.
Equity ratio¹ ²
Equity as a percentage of total assets.

The equity/assets ratio is used to analyse financial risk and show the percentage of assets that are funded with equity.
Capital employed¹
Total assets minus non-interest-bearing liabilities and provisions.

Capital employed shows the size of the company’s assets that have been lent to the company’s owners or that have been lent out by lenders, see reconciliation table on page 27-28.
Outstanding shares
Total number of shares less treasury shares repurchased by the Company.

¹The performance measure is an alternative performance measure according to ESMA’s guidelines.
²Minority interest is included in equity when the performance measures are calculated.